Hacia un diagnóstico más objetivo del TDAH: el papel de la Vergencia Ocular
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Supèr, H., & Cañete, J. (2016). Hacia un diagnóstico más objetivo del TDAH: el papel de la Vergencia Ocular. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 33(3), 397-406. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v33n3a4

Resumen

El Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos más comunes del neurodesarrollo. El diagnóstico actual se fundamenta en la presencia de síntomas de inatención, hiperactividad o impulsividad detectados a través de la anamnesis, la exploración, las entrevistas con padres y profesores y las escalas de evaluación de conducta observada. Además deben realizarse exploraciones médicas y psicopatológicas para excluir otras causas de los síntomas. El proceso es complejo y laborioso. Dada la importancia de una identificación adecuada de los casos para intervenir precozmente se sugiere la necesidad de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico añadiendo pruebas objetivas o marcadores que permitan un mayor precisión. Se revisan distintas estrategias utilizadas hasta el momento concluyendo que por ahora, ningún método ha demostrado una sensibilidad y especificidad suficiente. Recientemente encontramos una relación entre la vergencia ocular y el nivel de atención en adultos y niños. Mostramos que durante la fijación de la mirada los estímulos visuales modulan el ángulo de vergencia debido a su capacidad para capturar la atención. En un primer estudio piloto la prueba de vergencia ocular permitió discriminar entre niños sanos y niños con TDAH con un elevado grado de precisión. Se presentan los resultados iniciales de un estudio de validación donde se compara los resultados de vergencia ocular efectuados de forma ciega a un grupo de niños sanos con un grupo de niños con TDAH y un grupo de niños con otros trastornos de atención o aprendizaje y mediante algoritmos basados en “machine learning” se obtiene un grado de discriminación del 96% entre sanos y TDAH y entre estos y el grupo de niños con otros problemas de atención o aprendizaje es de 85%. En conclusión, la evaluación de la Vergencia Ocular puede constituir una herramienta válida y objetiva de ayuda al diagnóstico clínco del TDAH.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v33n3a4
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