Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal: revisión sistemática de un trastorno propio de la adolescencia
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Palabras clave

Trastorno dismórfico corporal
epidemiología
etiopatogenia
clínica
tratamiento

Cómo citar

Salavert Jiménez, J., Clarabuch Vicent, A., & Trillo Garrigues, M. (2019). Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal: revisión sistemática de un trastorno propio de la adolescencia. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 36(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v36n1a1

Resumen

Introducción: El Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal es un trastorno propio de la adolescencia, poco conocido y poco tenido en cuenta en la clínica diaria con niños y adolescentes, lo que demora el diagnóstico y empeora el pronóstico.

Métodos: Con el objetivo de realizar una revisión práctica para el clínico infanto-juvenil, se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en las principales bases de datos junto a una búsqueda manual en revistas y tratados especializados.

Resultados: El trastorno es muy común, con prevalencias del 1,7 al 2,5%. Dos terceras partes de los casos se inician en la adolescencia y una edad de inicio más temprana se asocia a mayor probabilidad de comorbilidad a lo largo de la evolución y a un mayor riesgo suicida. Se trata de un trastorno del espectro obsesivo-compulsivo que implica preocupaciones persistentes por uno o más defectos físicos percibidos y que no son observables por otras personas, así como comportamientos compulsivos en respuesta a dichas preocupaciones. La vergüenza y el miedo al rechazo promueven que el adolescente no explique sus síntomas y es muy habitual la demora de años en el diagnóstico, que si llega a establecerse, lo hace por lo general en la edad adulta. El curso es crónico y en caso de no diagnosticarse, el pronóstico será pobre con frecuente aislamiento social y deterioro funcional. Un diagnóstico correcto y a tiempo mejorará mucho la evolución, tratándose de un trastorno que responde bien a los tratamientos tanto farmacológicos como psicológicos.

Conclusión: Conocer el trastorno dismórfico corporal es muy importante para diagnosticarlo a tiempo en el adolescente, lo cual mejorará el pronóstico de forma clara.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v36n1a1
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