Distribución cortical de la potencia absoluta de la actividad Beta 12Hz-25 Hz en niños varones con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad combinado
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Palabras clave

Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad
QEEG
Ritmo Beta
T.O.V.A
variabilidad y tiempo de reacción
atención visual
atención auditiva
redes neuronales artificiales

Cómo citar

Téllez-Villagra, C., & González Pedraza Avilés, A. (2021). Distribución cortical de la potencia absoluta de la actividad Beta 12Hz-25 Hz en niños varones con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad combinado. Revista De Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, 38(2), 4-25. https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v38n2a2

Resumen

Introducción: El ritmo Beta del electroencefalograma cuantitativo (QEEG) está vinculado con inatención y alteraciones del movimiento. En niños con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) se han reportado potencia absoluta (PA) con incremento en frecuencias lentas y disminución en rápidas especialmente Beta-total. Objetivo: Identificar la distribución cortical de PA disminuida o incrementada en el QEEG en reposo-ojos-cerrados de cada frecuencia Beta (12Hz-25Hz) como predictora de inatención visual o auditiva y de la iniciación e inhibición del movimiento en niños varones con TDAH de presentación combinada. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo (2008-2019) en 131 niños varones (6-14 años), diagnosticados de TDAH de presentación combinada. De cada niño, se obtuvieron 532 datos: PA + 2 de la norma (base Neuroguide), Beta (12-25Hz) en 19 derivaciones del QEEG se asociaron a inatención visual, auditiva y al movimiento (puntuación < 80 TOVA-Visual y Auditiva). Resultados: Se obtuvo una PA disminuida en 1738 derivaciones (81,5%); PA incrementada en 394 (18,48%). Beta 20-25Hz PA disminuida predominó en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital; 12-13Hz PA-incrementada en Parietal. Inatención visual más baja que auditiva. Variabilidad y Tiempo de Respuesta visual caracterizaron la mala ejecución. PA-disminuida Beta 25Hz en Frontal caracterizó 30 (43%) niños con inatención visual y auditiva; Beta 23-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital a 33 (75%) con inatención visual; PA-incrementada 21Hz en Frontal y 25Hz en Parietal a 2 (29%) con inatención-auditiva. Beta 13-25Hz PA-disminuida en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital y 20-25Hz en Parietal influyeron en inatención visual en todas sus variables; mientras que inatención-auditiva en todas sus variables fue influenciada por Beta 16-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital. Beta 16-25Hz PA-disminuida en Frontal y Centro-témporo-occipital influyeron en hiperactividad visual y auditiva; Beta 22-25Hz en Centro-témporo-occipital en impulsividad visual y auditiva. Conclusión: Beta 20-25Hz con PA disminuida en Centro-témporo-occipital y 12-13Hz con PA-incrementada en Parietal junto con Variabilidad y Tiempo de Respuesta visual, pudieran ser biomarcadores del TDAH combinado. Los biomarcadores podrán apoyar el diagnóstico preciso y el uso de terapia no farmacológica con tecnología de punta que regule la actividad eléctrica.

https://doi.org/10.31766/revpsij.v38n2a2
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